246 HISTORY OF PERSIA CHAP. janissaries, who had been kept in reserve, now opened fire on the horsemen commanded by the Shah, who, after performing prodigies of valour, fell from his horse wounded and was nearly captured. Upon remounting he fled, followed by his dispirited troops, and Selim won the hard-fought battle. The Persian camp became the victor's prize, all the male prisoners were massacred, and Tabriz submitted to the Turks. The campaign was not prosecuted into the heart of Persia, as the Turkish army was mutinous and refused to proceed. Selim was obliged to evacuate Tabriz, which he sacked, and to content himself with the annexation of Kurdistan and Diarbekir. Georgia he also annexed, but this was afterwards recovered by Shah Ismail. Peace was not concluded, and frontier raids continued for many years. In his next great campaign Selim turned his powerful army against Egypt, which he converted into a Turkish province. Of equal, if not greater, importance, was the arrangement made with the puppet Caliph, who was ; induced to make over to the conqueror his spiritual authority, together with the standard and cloak of Mohamed. In other words, the house of Othmaff', succeeded to the Caliphate, and at the present time it is" generally recognized as spiritual head of Islam by Sunni Moslems,1 though not by Shias. The Death of Shah Ismail and his Character.—Shah Ismail, who was a capable, brave leader, is regarded with much affection by Persians for having established the Shia doctrines as the national religion. He was also worshipped during his life as a saint, and his subjects fought with fanaticism on his behalf, often refusing to, wear armour in battle. He was left-handed and of great personal strength ; it is said that he never smiled after his defeat by the Turks. He died at Ardebil in 1524' and was deeply mourned by all his subjects. Tahmasp) A.H. 930-984 (1524-1576).—Tahmasp, the eldest of the sons of Shah Ismail, succeeded to the throne 1 Educated Indian Moslems appear to be giving up their belief m the spiritual supremacy of the Sultan and rather look upon him as the embodiment of the temporal power of Islam. The war now raging may modify this view.